The students can download these solutions not only for clearing their doubts but also for a better understanding of respective chapters.
Chapter 1: The Solid State
Chapter 2: Solutions
Chapter 3: Electrochemistry
Chapter 4: Chemical Kinetics
Chapter 5: Surface Chemistry
Chapter 6: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Chapter 7: The p-Block Elements
Chapter 8: The d & f Block Elements
Chapter 9: Coordination Compounds
Chapter 10: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Chapter 11: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
Chapter 12: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids
Chapter 13: Amines
Chapter 14: Biomolecules
Chapter 15: Polymers
Chapter 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life
The NCERT Chemistry solutions for class 12 chemistry has been designed in such a way that they enable students to effectively tackle chemistry questions. Using these solutions students can go ahead towards understanding difficult concepts and performing better in exams.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 aims at developing in students an understanding and evaluation of several basic concepts of chemistry. These solutions are intended to help the students of class 12 in the preparation of CBSE board exams. Solving the NCERT questions will help you to understand the topics in a better and simple way. Sometimes the questions are also asked in the JEE Mains and NEET examinations.
Features NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry
The class 12 NCERT solutions for chemistry provided by Anjit Academy feature:
- In-depth explanations for all logical reasoning questions.
- Step-by-Step processes for solving numerical value questions.
- Concise and to-the-point answers to all theoretical questions.
- Verified answers from top-class subject experts.
- Free PDF download option.
Chapter 1 – The Solid State
The Solid State is the introduction chapter 1st of chemistry class 12. In this chapter, students will be able to understand the general characteristics of solid-state, classification of solids, crystal lattice, unit cell and imperfections in solids. The objective is to help the students regarding the pattern of answering the questions as per the marking scheme….
- General Characteristics of Solid State
- Amorphous and Crystalline Solids
- Classification of Crystalline Solids
- Molecular Solids
- Ionic Solids
- Metallic Solids
- Covalent or Network Solids
- Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
- Primitive and Centred Unit Cells
- Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell
- Primitive Cubic Unit Cell
- Body-Centred Cubic Unit Cell
- Face-Centred Cubic Unit Cell
- Close-Packed Structures
- The formula of a Compound and Number of Voids Filled
- Packing Efficiency
- Packing Efficiency in HCP and CCP Structures
- The efficiency of Packing in Body-Centred Cubic Structures
- Packing Efficiency in Simple Cubic Lattice
- Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions
- Imperfections in Solids
- Types of Point Defects
- Electrical Properties
- Conduction of Electricity in Metals
- Conduction of Electricity in Semiconductors
- Magnetic Properties
Download PDF file of Chapter 1 – The Solid State
There are three states of matter. They are – solid, liquid and gas. Some of the properties of solids are:
- Solids have a definite shape, volume and mass
- Distance and force: Inter molecular distance is short whereas inter molecular force is strong
- Solids are rigid and cannot be compressed
- Particles have fixed positions
Solids are further classified into two types: Amorphous and crystalline. Crystalline Solids have a definite geometric shape, has long-range order. These solids are isotropic and do not have definite heat of fusion. Examples of crystalline solids are Quartz and sodium chloride. Crystalline solids are also called true solids.
Amorphous word is derived from the Greek word ‘amorphous’ which means no form. In this, the particles are of indefinite shape and have short-range order. Example of amorphous solids is Quartz glass. Amorphous solids are also called supercooled or pseudo solids.
Chapter 2 – Solutions
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more than two components. These solutions will help the students to understand types of solution, expressing the concentration of the solution, solubility, ideal and non-ideal solutions, colligative properties and abnormal molar mass.
Solving the NCERT questions will help you to understand the topics in a better and simple way. Sometimes the questions are also asked in the JEE Mains and NEET examinations.
- Types of Solutions
- Expressing Concentration of Solutions
- The solubility of a Solid in a Liquid
- The solubility of a Gas in a Liquid
- Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions
- Vapour Pressure of Liquid-Liquid Solutions
- Raoult’s Law as a special case of Henry’s Law
- Vapour Pressure of Solutions of Solids in Liquids
- Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions
- Ideal Solutions
- Non-ideal Solutions
- Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass
- Relative Lowering of Vapour Pressure
- Elevation of Boiling Point
- Depression of Freezing Point
- Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
- Abnormal Molar Masses
Download PDF file of Chapter 2 – Solutions
This chapter “solution” teaches about the type of solution, the concentration of solutions, solubility of solids and gases in a liquid, the vapour pressure of liquid solutions, Raoult’s law, ideal and non-ideal solutions, colligative properties and determination of molar masses.
Chapter 3 – Electrochemistry
Describe in this chapter electrochemical cell and differentiate between galvanic and electrolytic cells. You will study the application of the Nernst equation for calculating the emf of a galvanic cell and define the standard potential of the cell.
This chapter has derivations of the relation between the standard potential of the cell, Gibbs energy of cell reaction and its equilibrium constant. This solution will give the definition of resistivity (p), conductivity (K) and molar conductivity of ionic solutions; differentiate between ionic (electrolytic) and electronic conductivity; describe the method for measurement of conductivity of electrolytic solutions and calculation of their molar conductivity; justify the variation of conductivity and molar conductivity of solutions with change in their concentration and define molar conductivity at zero concentration or infinite dilution; Kohlrausch law and learn its applications; understand quantitative aspects of electrolysis; describe the construction of some primary and secondary batteries and fuel cells and explain corrosion as an electrochemical process.
- Electrochemical Cells
- Galvanic Cells
- Measurement of Electrode Potential
- Nernst Equation
- Equilibrium Constant from Nernst Equation
- Electrochemical Cell and Gibbs Energy of Reaction
- The conductance of Electrolytic Solutions
- Measurement of the Conductivity of Ionic Solutions
- Variation of Conductivity and Molar Conductivity with Concentration
- Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis
- Products of Electrolysis
- Primary Batteries
- Secondary Batteries
- Fuel Cells
Download PDF file of Chapter 3 – Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the relationship between chemical energy and electrical energy produced in a redox reaction and how they can be converted into each other.
Electrochemistry has mainly been designed to help the students in preparing well and score good marks in CBSE class 12 Chemistry paper. Further, the solutions consist of well thought or structured questions along with detailed explanations to help students learn and remember concepts easily.
Chapter 4 – Chemical Kinetics
It deals with the rate of chemical reaction, the factors affecting it, the mechanism of the reaction. Based on the rate of reaction we have 3 types: Instantaneous reactions, Slow reactions and moderately slow reactions; This is brief on Chemical Kinetics.
- The rate of a Chemical Reaction
- Factors Influencing the Rate of a Reaction
- Dependence of Rate on Concentration
- Rate Expression and Rate Constant
- Order of a Reaction
- Molecularity of a Reaction
- Integrated Rate Equations
- Zero Order Reactions
- First-Order Reactions
- Half-Life of a Reaction
- Pseudo First Order Reaction
- Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction
- Effect of Catalyst Ex 4.6 – Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions.
Download PDF file of Chapter 4 – Chemical Kinetics
Students will be able to understand the rate of chemical reaction, Temperature dependence on the rate of reaction, Arrhenius equation and collision theory of chemical reaction. The chapter given here is to assist the students to understand the lesson in an easy and interesting way.
Chapter 5 – Surface Chemistry
Surface Chemistry Chapter deals with some important features such as adsorption, catalysis, and colloids which comprises emulsions and gels. After studying this chapter, students will be able to describe the interfacial phenomenon and its significance; define adsorption and classify it into physical and chemical adsorption; explain mechanism of adsorption; explain the factors controlling adsorption from gases and solutions on solids; explain adsorption results on the basis of Freundlich adsorption isotherms; appreciate the role of catalysts in industry; enumerate the nature of colloidal state; describe preparation, properties, and purification of colloids; classify emulsions and describe their preparation and properties; describe the phenomenon of gel formation; list the uses of colloids.
- The distinction between Adsorption and Absorption
- Mechanism of Adsorption
- Types of Adsorption
- Adsorption Isotherms
- Adsorption from Solution Phase
- Applications of Adsorption
- Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis
- Adsorption Theory of Heterogeneous Catalysis
- Shape-Selective Catalysis by Zeolites
- Enzyme Catalysis
- Catalysts in Industry
- Classification of Colloids
- Classification Based on the Physical State of Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium
- Classification Based on the Nature of Interaction between Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium
- Classification Based on the Type of Particles of the Dispersed Phase, Multi-molecular, Macromolecular, and Associated Colloids
- Preparation of Colloids
- Purification of Colloidal Solutions
- Properties of Colloidal Solutions
- Colloids around Us.
Download PDF file of Chapter 5 – Surface Chemistry
Surface Chemistry is also an important topic from the examination point of view as this chapter holds four marks in class 12th chemistry board examination. Worksheets and exercises provided in surface chemistry and NCERT solutions will help you in understanding the concepts of the chapter surface chemistry. This will help the students in memorizing the concepts for a long period of time.
Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
The most abundant metal found in the earth’s crust is Aluminium. Approx. 8.3% by weight. Cleaning of ore or removal of particles like sand, clay, etc. from the ore is called dressing of ore or concentration of ore. This is done in the following steps: Hydraulic washing, Magnetic separation, froth floatation method, Leaching….
- Occurrence of Metals
- Concentration of Ores
- Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore
- Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy
- Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy
- Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc, and Iron.
Download PDF file of Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
The entire scientific and technological process used for isolation of the metal from its ores is known as metallurgy. Rather than simply describing the processes and reactions involved in metal extraction, this chapter concentrates on fundamental principles to give students an understanding of the possibilities for future developments in this field.
Chapter 7 – The p Block Elements
The chemistry of inorganic ; the p-block elements has a long and venerable history that dates back to the early 19th century. The elements of Group 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 are called P block elements. P-block elements exist in all the three physical states and maybe metals, non-metals or metalloids.
- Group 15 Elements
- Oxides of Nitrogen
- Nitric Acid
- Phosphorus — Allotropic Forms
- Phosphorus Halides
- Oxoacids of Phosphorus
- Group 16 Elements
- Simple Oxides
- Sulphur — Allotropic Forms
- Sulphur Dioxide
- Oxoacids of Sulphur
- Sulphuric Acid
- Group 17 Elements
- Hydrogen Chloride
- Oxoacids of Halogens
- Interhalogen Compounds
- Group 18 Elements
- Nitrogen comprises 78% by volume of the atmosphere. Oxygen which is the most abundant element on earth forms 46.6% by mass of earth’s crust. Fluorine is present in insoluble fluorides. Seawater contains bromides, chlorides, and iodides of potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. It is mainly sodium chloride solution.
Download PDF file of Chapter 7 – The p Block Elements
Chapter 8 – d & f Block Elements
This chapter deals with elements of d and f block of the modern periodic table. The elements lying in the middle of the periodic table between the s-block and p-block elements are known as d-block or transition elements. The f-block elements are called inner-transition series. The d and f block elements introduce various important topics to the students like general properties of the transition elements (d block), physical properties, variation in atomic and ionic sizes of transition metals, ionization enthalpies, oxidation states, magnetic properties, the formation of coloured ions and complex compounds.
- Position in the Periodic Table
- Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements
- General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)
- Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements
- The Lanthanoids
- The Actinoids
- Some Applications of d- and f-Block Elements
Download PDF file of Chapter 8 – d and f Block Elements
Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds
The chemistry of coordination compounds is an important and challenging area of modern inorganic chemistry. The solutions are prepared by our subject experts with the objective of helping students in preparing well for their exams.
- Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds
- Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds
- Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds
- Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
- Bonding in Coordination Compounds
- Bonding in Metal Carbonyls
- Stability of Coordination Compounds
- Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds.
Download PDF file of Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds
Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes deal with the study of important methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and Describe the reactions involved in the preparation of haloalkanes and haloarenes and understand various reactions that they undergo; correlate the structures of haloalkanes and haloarenes with various types of reactions; use stereochemistry as a tool for understanding the reaction mechanism; appreciate the applications of organometallic compounds and highlight the environmental effects of polyhalogen compounds.
- Nature of C-X Bond
- Methods of Preparation
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Polyhalogen Compounds
Download PDF file of Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols and phenols are classified on the basis of the number of -OH groups present. Compounds containing one -OH group are known as mono-hydride alcohols and phenols. The terms dihydric, trihydric or polyhydric are used, when the compounds contain two, three or more -OH groups respectively.
The reactions involved in the process of making alcohol from Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers. The reactions involved in the preparation of phenols from benzene sulphonic acids, haloarenes.
- Structures of Functional groups
- Alcohols and phenols
- Some Commercially Important alcohols
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Chapter 12 – Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic Acids are carbonyl compounds of utmost importance to organic chemistry. Aldehydes and ketones are obtained by the ozonolysis of alkenes, by hydration of alkynes and by the oxidation of alcohols or form cyanides. The physical properties and chemical reactions of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids with their structures.
- Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group
- Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones
- Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group
- Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Uses of Carboxylic Acids.
Download PDF file of Chapter 12 – Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Chapter 13 – Amines
Amines are derivatives of ammonia. They are obtained by replacing hydrogen atom by alkyl or aryl group. Either one or two or all the three hydrogen atoms are replaced. Based on the number of hydrogen atoms replaced, amines are classified into three: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary amines.
In this chapter, students will be able to understand the nomenclature, properties, and structure of amines. Amines are the most important nitrogen-containing organic compounds. Solved examples based on the basicity of amines, synthesis and reactions undergone by amines are well explained by our subject expert.
- Structure of Amines
- Preparation of Amines
- Physical Properties
- Chemical Reactions
- Methods of preparation of Diazonium Salts
- Physical Properties
- Chemical reactions
- Importance of Diazonium salts in Synthesis of aromatic Compounds
Download PDF file of Chapter 13 – Amines
Chapter 14 – Biomolecules
Biomolecules are the organic compounds present as essential constituents of the living organism in different cells. Biomolecules include carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, vitamins and nucleic acids.
Life is made up of chemicals, living beings are constituted from chemicals known as biomolecules such as carbohydrates, vitamins, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. These biomolecules interact with each other and constitute the molecular logic of life processes.
- Nucleic Acids
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Chapter 15 – Polymers
Elastomers, Fibres, Thermoplastic And Thermosetting. Types of polymerization. The molecular mass of polymers. Biodegradable polymers. Two Greek words combine to form a term ‘polymer’. In Greek, ‘poly’ means many and ‘mers’ means part or unit. It is also referred to as macromolecules. Examples of polymers are Butadiene, Buna – N etc. Homo-polymers and Copolymers are two types of polymers which are based on their repeating structural unit.
There are two types of polymerization reactions:
- Addition polymerization, It occurs in three steps:
Step 1: Chain initiation
Step 2: Chain propagation
Step 3: Chain termination
- Condensation polymerization: It is also called as step-growth polymerization.
Download PDF file of Chapter 15 – Polymers
Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life
- Drugs and their Classification
- Drug-Target Interaction
- Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs
- Chemicals in Food
- Cleansing Agents
Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 includes the topic – Drugs and their classifications:
- Drug Target Interaction: Enzymes as drug targets, Receptors as drug targets.
- Therapeutic Action of different classes of drugs: Antacids, Antihistamines, Neurologically Active Drugs, Antimicrobials, Anti-fertility
- Chemicals in food: Artificial Sweetening Agents, Food Preservatives.
- Cleansing Agents: Soaps, Synthetic Detergents.
Download PDF file of Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life